The Roman Years
During the reign of Emperor Augustus (31 BC - 14 AD), a new market, the Roman Agora, became the busiest place of the city for merchants, craftsmen and citizens. In the 2nd century AD Emperor Hadrian, who had received education in Athens, implemented a vast building programme which included the building of an aqueduct, erecting a library, a Gymnasium, and completing a centuries-long project, the temple of Olympian Zeus and its surrounding area of the Olympion.
The Roman rule with its periods of decline and intense rebuilding came to an end when the ferocious Heruli from Scandinavia raided the city in 267 AD. The Acropolis was the only part of the city that remained unharmed and the next few hundred years would see a series of other invasions and short peaceful periods for Athens. But the city would lose its glory and eventually become a medieval provincial town.